Different Types of Industrial Robotics and Applications
Robot is a machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (such as walking or talking) of a human being; a similar but fictional machine whose lack of capacity for human emotions is often emphasized. – An efficient insensitive person who functions automatically (from merriam webster).
Robotics – the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots.
Types Of Robots by Application
- Industrial Robots – Designed to move materials, parts and tools, performs variety of programmed tasks in manufacturing. Usually these are articulated arms specifically developed for such applications as welding, material handling, painting and others. If we judge purely by application this type could also include some automated guided vehicles and other robots.
- Domestic or Household Robots – Robots used at home. This type of robots includes many quite different devices such as robotic vacuum cleaners, robotic pool cleaners, sweepers, gutter cleaners and other robots that can do different chores. Also, some surveillance and telepresence robots could be regarded as household robots if used in that environment.
- Medical Robots – Robots used in medicine and medical institutions. First and foremost – surgery robots. Also, some automated guided vehicles and maybe lifting aides.
- Service Robots – Robots that dont fall into other types by usage. These could be different data gathering robots, robots made to show off technologies, robots used for research, etc.
- Military Robots – Robots used in military. This type of robots includes bomb disposal robots, different transportation robots, reconnaissance drones. Often robots initially created for military purposes can be used in law enforcement, search and rescue and other related fields.
- Entertainment Robots – These are robots used for entertainment. This is a very broad category. It starts with toy robots such as robosapien or the running alarm clock and ends with real heavyweights such as articulated robot arms used as motion simulators.
- Space Robots – Id like to single out robots used in space as a separate type. This type would include robots used on the International Space Station, Canadarm that was used in Shuttles, as well as Mars rovers and other robots used in space.
- Hobby and Competition Robots – Robots that you create. Line followers, sumo-bots, robots made just for fun and robots made for competition.
Industries that used Robotics
- The Health Care Industry – Intuitive Surgical, Inc’s da Vinci robots, for example, are surgical robots that are used by doctors to perform minimally invasive surgery.
- Military and Public Safety Industries – Ex. Explosive Ordinance Disposal Robots
- The Manufacturing Industry – Ex. Automotive, etc.
- The Mining Industry – example, Stanley Innovation has an advanced custom robot that is placed on a Segway robotic mobility platform (RMP), allowing it to maneuver over hazardous terrain.
Since the advent of robots, work has been shared between man and machine. But, as robots become more technologically advanced and autonomous, they learn how to do jobs faster and better than humans. Their precision, intelligence and endless energy levels make them the perfect employees for a wide variety of jobs that humans just can’t afford to do.
Basic Parts of an Industrial Robot
Every robot is connected to a computer controller, which regulates the components of the arm and keeps them working together. The controller also allows the robot to be networked to other systems, so that it may work together with other machines, processes, or robots. Almost all robots are pre-programmed using “teaching” devices or offline software programs. In the future, controllers with artificial intelligence (AI) could allow robots to think on their own, even program themselves. This could make robots more self-reliant and independent.
The arm is the part of the robot that positions the end-effector and sensors to do their pre-programmed business. Many are built to resemble human arms, and have shoulders, elbows, wrists, even fingers. Each joint is said to give the robot 1 degree of freedom. A simple robot arm with 3 degrees of freedom could move in 3 ways: up and down, left and right, forward and backward. Most working robots today have 6 degrees of freedom to allow them to reach any possible point in space within its work envelope. The human arm has 7.
The links (the sections between the joints) are moved into their desired position by the drive. Typically, a drive is powered by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or electricity.
The end-effector could be thought of as the “hand” on the end of the robotic arm. There are many possible end-effectors including a gripper, a vacuum pump, tweezers, scalpel, blowtorch, welder, spray gun, or just about anything that helps it do its job. Some robots can change end-effectors, and be reprogrammed for a different set of tasks.
The sensor sends information, in the form of electronic signals back to the controller. Sensors also give the robot controller information about its surroundings and lets it know the exact position of the arm, or the state of the world around it. One of the more exciting areas of sensor development is occurring in the field of computer vision and object recognition. Robot sensors can detect infrared radiation to “see” in the dark.
Industrial Robot Applications (Basic Jobs)
– Machine Tending
– Clinical Lab
(Interesting Read: 10 Best Ways To Increase Warehouse Efficiency)
Types of Industrial Robots
Articulated/Jointed arm – This robot design features rotary joints and can range from simple two joint structures to 10 or more joints. The arm is connected to the base with a twisting joint. The links in the arm are connected by rotary joints. Each joint is called an axis and provides an additional degree of freedom, or range of motion. Industrial robots commonly have four or six axes.
Application: Food,Bakery, Manufacturing (Palletizing)
Heavy Duty robot with 500 Kg payload
Cartesian/Rectilinear/Gantry – Cartesian robots have three linear joints that use the Cartesian coordinate system (X, Y, and Z). They also may have an attached wrist to allow for rotational movement. The three prismatic joints deliver a linear motion along the axis.
Application: Electronics ( ICs mounted on PCBs)
Cylindrical – The robot has at least one rotary joint at the base and at least one prismatic joint to connect the links. The rotary joint uses a rotational motion along the joint axis, while the prismatic joint moves in a linear motion. Cylindrical robots operate within a cylindrical-shaped work envelope.
Application: Palletising, Grinding process, assembly, handling machine
Tools. This type is one of the rarely used now a days because most of
Its function, movement is now part of the SCARA robot, this type was
Heavily used during the 80’s.
Polar/Spherical – in this configuration the arm is connected to the base with a twisting joint and a combination of two rotary joints and one linear joint. The axes form a polar coordinate system and create a spherical-shaped work envelope.
Applications:Welding etc., extensively used in the car Industry
SCARA Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm or Selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm – Commonly used in assembly applications, this selectively compliant arm for robotic assembly is primarily cylindrical in design. It features two parallel joints that provide compliance
in one selected plane.
Applications: Pick and place (usually in assembly operations)
Sealant application, machine tool handling
Delta – These spider-like robots are built from jointed parallelograms connected to a common base. The parallelograms move a single EOAT (End Of Arm Tooling) in a dome-shaped work area. Heavily used in the food, pharmaceutical, and electronic industries, this robot configuration is capable of delicate, precise movement.
Applications: Pick and Place (mostly in assembly)
Top 5 Companies that Manufacture Industrial Robots
Fanuc robots are used in aerospace, automotive, consumer goods and many other industries. Over 250,000 Fanuc robots have been installed worldwide, according to the company website.
The R1000/R2000 series of robots are extremely flexible, high speed robots in the medium payload class. Motion Controls Robotics most popular robot series is consistent with the “Most Successful Robot in the World” according to FANUC, the R2000. While these robots were originally designed for applications in the automotive industry, their versatility makes them relevant in many applications. Here at MCRI we select this robot for general material handling and palletizing.
Applications: Palletizing, Material handling, Spot welding, etc.
The M410 series is purpose-designed and built for palletizing. There are a variety of models in this series allowing for payloads up to 700kg. Our two best sellers in this series are the M-410iB/140H and the M-410iC/185.
Applications: Material Handling/Palletizing/Depalletizing,etc.
The M710 series is great for modular, compact applications such as case packing and palletizing cells, part pick and place, bin picking, furnace loading/unloading, and other press tending applications. This industrial robots standard model has a high ingress protection (IP) rating, so it is often selected for dirty work.
Application: Packing and palletising Assembly, Material handling Material removal, Machine load/ unload, Foundry applications, Painting and sanding, Waterjet cutting/routering, Part transfer Bin picking.
MH 280 II
Application – Machine Tending, Press Forming,etc
Application: Arc Welding, Machine Tending, Grinding etc.
KR CYBERTECH nano
Application: Welding, other handling operations,etc.
What are the issues that are confronting companies that want to use Robotics
- The general sentiment of companies in the Manufacturing Industries is that using/buying robotics to automate their process is very expensive.
- They do not have the knowledge how to integrate a robot in their process
- Companies still think that Industrial Robots are dangerous to use with humans around, ex. Crushing hazards, robot to human collision and others